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TARİHÇESİ   

Maltepe, İstanbul iline bağlı Marmara Denizi'ne kıyısı olan, Anadolu yakasında bir ilçedir. Kadıköy, Kartal ,Sancaktepe ve Ataşehir ilçeleriyle komşu olan Maltepe İstanbul'un 10. büyük ilçesi konumundadır. Maltepe'nin tarihi Bizans İmparatorluğu'na dayanmaktadır. O devirlerde adının "Bryas" veya Latince adıyla "Urias" olduğu söylenir. Diğer bir bilgiye göre ise Bizanslıların tarihinde "Pelekanon" dur. Bryas adının tarihçiler tarafından Küçükyalı'da eski Akduman pınar'ı yakınlarında bulunan Bryas Sarayı harabelerinden aldığı belirtilmekte ise de kesin kanıt yoktur. Bu nedenle bu günkü Maltepe 16. yüzyılda burada kurulmuştur. Bu küçük sınır kasabasının 1509 yılındaki depremde yıkıldığı ve Dragos eteklerinde bulunan ve bu yüzyılda "Obnias"veya"Abrias" adı ile anılan bu kasabanın harabeleri 1540 yılında ünlü Fransız nebetatçısı ve seyyahı "Pierre Gylli" tarafından görülerek tespit edilmiştir. Pelekanon adı üzerinde duran tarihçiler ise 3. Andronikos ile Orhan Gazi arasındaki savaşın (1329-1330) Maltepe ve çevresinde olduğunu söylemektedirler. Bu görüşün kaynağı ise ünlü tarihçi Hammer'dir. Buna rağmen Pelekanon savaşı'nı araştıran tarihçi 6. Mırmıroğlu çeşitli kanıtlara dayanarak Pelekanon Savaşının Darıca ile Eskihisar arasındaki Manastır Mevkii'nde olduğunu ileri sürmüştür. Yapılan bütün bu araştırmalardan da anlaşılacağı gibi Maltepe yüzyıllardır önemli bir yerleşim bölgesidir. Bu günkü Maltepe adı ise "Höyük Tümülüs "(Yığmatepe) içinde hazine ve define veya küp dolu altınların yığıldığı tepe anlamına gelmektedir.Kocaeli Yarımadası'nın Türkler tarafından fethinden sonra Türkler Dragos'la ilgili birkaç efsaneye dayanarak bu ismi vermiştir. Tarihçi Hammer bu kıyı şeridindeki bütün tepelere "Maltepe denildiğini söylemektedir.Osmanlı İmparatorluğu kurulmadan önce Türk akıncıları Bizans egemenliği altında bulunan Kocaeli Yarımadası'na akınlar düzenlemişlerdir.Bu akıncıların Üsküdar'a kadar geldikleri bilinmektedir. 1075 yılında İznik ve çevresini fethederek Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti'ni kurarlar. Süleyman Şah İstanbul Boğazı'na kadar dayanmıştır. Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti'nin yıkılmasından sonra Maltepe ve Çevresi yine Bizanslıların egemenliği altına girmiştir. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu kurulduktan sonra 2. Osmanlı Padişahı Orhan Gazi'nin döneminde komutanları " Akça Koca, Konur Alp, Gazi Abdurrahman" tarafından Türk egemenliğine alınmıştır. İstanbul’un Türkler tarafından fethinden sonra Maltepe'nin tarihi konumu daha da artmıştır. Bağdat yolu üzerinde olan Maltepe Osmanlı Ordusu'nun Üsküdar'dan sonra ikinci durak yeri olmakta ve ordugah Maltepe' de kurulmakta idi. Fatih Sultan Mehmet’in 300.000 bin kişilik ordusunun başında 27 Nisan günü Üsküdar'a geçtiği ve burada hastalanıp birkaç gün istirahattan sonra tekrar yola çıktığı, Üsküdar'la Gebze arasındaki Tekfur Çayırı ve Sultan Çayırı diye anılan Hünkar Çayırı Mevkii'nde tekrar hastalanıp 3 Mayıs 1481 de öldüğü İsmail Hami Danışment tarafından yazılmıştır. Danışment'e göre bazı Osmanlı kayıtlarında Üsküdar ve Gebze arasında bulunan Hünkar Çayırı Maltepe'dedir. Evliya Çelebi'nin Seyahatname adlı eserinin 1. Cildinde de Fatih Sultan Mehmet'in Maltepe yakınlarında öldüğü ifade edilmektedir. Osmanlı döneminde Maltepe askeri konaklama yeri olarak önemli bir mevki idi. 18. yüzyıl Kazasker Feyzullah Efendi'nin çabalarıyla Maltepe daha da gelişerek yeni bir çehreye bürünmüştür. (1699-1761) Şeyhülislam Ebu'l Hayr Efendi'nin oğlu olan 1749’da Rumeli Kazaskerliğine getirilen Feyzullah Efendi de (1755 ve 1757) iki defa "Şeyhülislamlığa" atanmış ve 1758 yılında 3. Mustafa tarafından azledilerek Sütlüce'deki evinde oturmasına izin verilmiş, ölüncede Sütlüce Deresi'nde yaptırmış olduğu zaviyeye gömülmüştür. Eski Maltepe'nin Feyzullah Efendinin Çiftliği olduğu söylenir. Kayış Dağı memba Suyunu Maltepe'ye toprak künklerle Feyzullah Efendin getirmiş bununla da yetinmeyip bu günkü Feyzullah Camii'nin yanındaki asmalı kahvenin önünde bulunan çeşmeyi de kendisi yaptırmıştır. Maltepe'de ilk cemiyet 1910 yılında Uhuvvet-i Osmaniye adı altında Miralay Süreyya İlmen tarafından kurulmuştur. Maltepe ye ilk kez 14 Nisan 1912 yılında Sayeste Kadı Efendi adı verilen bir ilkokul yapılmıştır.Kurtuluş Savaşı'ndan sonra Selanik, Drama, Kavala ve Serez Yöresi'nden Türkiye'ye mübadele ile gelen Türklerin 1500'ü Maltepe'ye yerleşmiştir. Narlıdere Çiftliği adıyla bilinen bugünkü Süreyyapaşa Göğüs Hastalıkları Merkezi Maltepe’nin gelişmesine büyük emeği geçen Süreyyapaşa tarafında yapılmıştır. (1874-1955) Cumhuriyeti izleyen yıllarda Maltepe büyük bir yangın geçirmiş bütün ahşap evlerle birlikte Feyzullah Efendi Camii'de yanmıştır. 1928 yılında Maltepe Belediyesi kurulmuştur. Maltepe'nin İmar Planı ise 1945'te yapılmıştır. İmar Planından sonra Maltepe'nin yerleşim bölgesi demiryolu hattı olmuş 1960'tan sonra da yerleşim daha yukarılara dağılmış olup E-5 üstünde de hızlı bir gelişme kaydetmiştir.
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